To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Andenet Ashagrie. The network comprises a huge national asset that requires adherence to appropriate standards for design, construction and maintenance in order to provide a high level of service.
Location and Design Division
As the length of the road network is increasing, appropriate choice of methods to preserve this investment becomes increasingly important. In the Ethiopian Roads Authority ERA published road design manuals to provide a standardized approach for the design, construction and maintenance of roads in the country. Due to technological development and change, these manuals require periodic updating and expanding. The new series of manuals has particular reference to the prevailing conditions in Ethiopia and reflects the experience gained through activities within the road sector during the last 10 years.
The updating of existing manuals and preparation of new manuals was undertaken in close consultation with the federal and regional roads authorities and stakeholders in the road sector. Most importantly, a series of thematic peer review panels was established that comprised local experts from the public and private sector who provided guidance and review for the project team.
The standards set out shall be adhered to unless otherwise directed by ERA. However, I should emphasize that careful consideration to sound engineering practice shall be observed in the use of the manual, and under no circumstances shall the manual waive professional judgment in applied engineering.
I would also like to extend my gratitude and appreciation to all of the industry stakeholders and participants who contributed their time, knowledge and effort during the development of the documents.
Special thanks are extended to the members of the various Peer Review Panels, whose active support and involvement guided the authors of the manual and the process. It is my sincere hope that this manual will provide all users with a standard reference and a ready source of good practice for the geotechnical design of roads, and will assist in a cost effective operation, and environmentally sustainable development of our road network.
I look forward to the practices contained in this manual being quickly adopted into our operations, thereby making a sustainable contribution to the improved infrastructure of our country.
Comments and suggestions on all aspects from any concerned body, group or individual as feedback during its implementation is expected and will be highly appreciated. The series describes current and recommended practice and sets out the national standards for roads and bridges.
The documents are based on national experience and international practice and are approved by the Director General of the Ethiopian Roads Authority. The complete series of documents, covering all roads and bridges in Ethiopia, is as follows: 1.
Route Selection Manual 2. Site Investigation Manual 3. Geotechnical Design Manual 4. Geometric Design Manual 5. Drainage Design Manual 9.
It is appropriate for roads which, over their design life, are required to carry an average of up to about vehicles per day, and less than about 1. The draft manual was published in This version incorporates recent innovations in Low Volume Road design and construction practices from Ethiopia and the region. The Manual has 7 parts A-G. Part A provides an overview of the Manual, its application, context, use and introduces the philosophy of low volume road design.
Part B provides explanatory notes and supporting information that should be considered during the design process and provides background to the standards described in the remaining sections of the Manual. Part C describes some concepts and practical issues relating to the planning, design and implementation of potential complementary interventions on low volume road projects.
Part D deals with a wide range of issues relating to the construction of LVRs that the contractor and supervisor need to consider and to act upon, whether these parties are provided in-house or externally procured.Skyforge account
Construction issues include the choice of construction method, material utilisation options, control of the quality of the works especially compaction and layer thicknessesand proper management of borrow pit operations. Part E deals with small drainage and watercourse crossing structures, typically up to 10 metres span, and retaining structures. It provides detailed guidance on the processes involved with the planning and design of small drainage and other structures for low volume roads.
Part G sets out guidance for weredas, kebeles and all local communities on how to maintain their own road access using the limited resources available to them. It also advises how it may be possible to mobilise outside resources to enhance the impact of local initiatives.
Ethiopian Roads Authority Manual for Low Volume Roads. Part C: Complimentary Interventions. Part G: Road Maintenance. To help us improve GOV.
Much of the information in this new edition has been shifted between chapters to reflect the concurrent engineering process.
There is also some shifting in page numbering. For example, page 2D in the previous edition is now 2D The information provided in this electronic version of the Road Design Manual is a product of, and copyrighted by, the Virginia Department of Transportation VDOT and is intended to be used for informational purposes only and is not to be sold or otherwise distributed for profit. Although this data has been tested by the Virginia Department of Transportation, no expressed or implied warranties are made by VDOT concerning, the accuracy, completeness, reliability and usability of this information.
The Virginia Department of Transportation assumes no responsibility for any incorrect outcomes or damage resulting from the use of this information. All users shall expressly hold the Virginia Department of Transportation harmless from any liability or loss due to a virus or any other computer or software generated problem associated with these files. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact LDPolicySupport vdot.
Revisions Read Me File. This manual is no longer available for purchase. Home Business Road Design Manual. Chapter 1A. Chapter 1B.Discord js marry command
Chapter 1C. Chapter 1D. Chapter 1E. Chapter 2A. Chapter 2B. Chapter 2C.Not only does the app work perfectly on iPhone, it is also compatible with the iPad and iPod Touch. Instead, you need to download the app directly from the Bet365 website.
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Their website is available in seventeen different languages and they offer sports betting, poker, casino, games, and bingo, as well as live streaming on popular races and events.
Bet365 has one of the best websites on the market, the layout is attractive and easy to navigate.Motorcraft 2100 replacement parts
You can find all the main categories in a menu at the top, and sub-menus appear below, depending on the category you have chosen. They have invested heavily in their live betting and live streaming services.Road Design Fundamentals Profile 1
Live Streaming on the site is free, but you must have money in your account or must have placed a bet during the last 24 hours in order to watch and take part in betting on their live streaming events.
Bet365 is one of the giants of the betting and online gaming world, which is reflected in their range of services and betting options along with a very well-developed website. We recommend Bet365 in general for all players, and especially for live betting players. Sports betting is given the pride of place, being the first option to select in the top menu on the website. The home page of the sports section shows a dashboard of live events, highlights and scores, so you have all the essential information at a glance.
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The casino area of the site is attractive and easy to use. It offers all the usual favourites such as BlackJack, Roulette and Baccarat, as well as themed games such as Marvel Roulette or scratch cards based on popular films. Categories include slot games, card games, table games and jackpots.Literature grade 10 answer key
A variety of video poker games are also available, allowing you to play online without downloading the immersive software necessary for the poker section of the website. Poker at Bet365 is well-supported by appropriate software, with both a mobile app and PC software available to download.The online predictions app allows you to make your own voting poll and create a questionnaire with all the possible answers.
Participants will be required to make their predictions and register. You will be able to add as many questions as you want and let users pick only one option, let them pick several answers, or even make users order the answers.
It's the ideal tool for organizing a predictions pool to let users guess the results of a football match, sports championship, musical or movie awards or even predict the final podium for a motorcycle or race championship. You will be able to fully customize the multiple-choice test, add pictures, text and videos and, at the end of the contest, you will see who the users with most right answers are and raffle a prize among the top winners.
Design the betting pool exactly as you want by using the questionnaire editor. You can add as many questions as you need, define the best layout to present them and customize the color of the buttons. You can see the changes being made as you edit the betting pool. Use different types of questions: Open answer, closed-answer buttons, sort options, multi-answer, dropdown, auto-complete lists, and rating options. Complement them with photos and videos.
Reward the users who predict the results of the competition correctly by entering them in a final sweepstakes. Use the winner-selection tool to carry out the sweepstakes and obtain a certificate of validity. Create a contest for each day and present them on the same page. Activate global ranking to boost competitiveness among users. Viralize the contest by giving more chances of winning to those users who recruit the most friends. Reward participation in the betting pool by giving users a coupon or promotional code which they can redeem in your store or establishment.
Register now and access the control panel from where you can create and configure a complete predictions poll, see all the options and preview exactly how it will look upon publication.
If you continue to browse we will consider you to have accepted their use. You can change the set up or obtain more information here. Table of contents Main features Complete features Combine it with Versions and pricing Technical tutorial The predictions app lets you challenge your fans to predict, guess and make their bets about the results of a future event.
Predictions Combine it with. Promotions group Create a contest for each day and present them on the same page. Sweepstakes Carry out a sweepstakes among all the users who correctly predict the result of the competition. Recruiters Viralize the contest by giving more chances of winning to those users who recruit the most friends. Coupons Reward participation in the betting pool by giving users a coupon or promotional code which they can redeem in your store or establishment. Access to the Premium Design Template, with more customization options.Olaian surfboard
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Working with Alexandra was just a pleasure. From the very first email I sent of inquiry about the possibility of booking a trip with Nordic Visitor until the email I sent at the end of our trip asking if we could change our shuttle pickup time at the hotel, she was helpful, knowledgeable, responsive and always cheerful.
Thanks to Alexandra and Nordic Visitor, this was one of the best planned and organized trips we have ever taken. Nothing went wrong, but I have every confidence that Nordic Visitor would have helped us had there been any problems. I have no recommendations for how Nordic Visitor could improve what it does and that is unusual for me.
My expectations are high, and they were surpassed. Our trip to Iceland was unforgettable. Everything from the accommodations, to the rental car, to the travel documents exceeded our expectations.
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The booklets given were most helpful and actually more efficient than Google, or just easier to navigate. Our hotels were perfect. We enjoyed wonderful dinners, some in the hotels, and others along the way. We were pleasantly surprised that even the smallest hotels served gourmet meals, great food and beautiful presentation. This was the vacation of our dreams and we were blessed to travel with our daughter and two granddaughters, ages 8 and 11. We were still in Iceland when the granddaughters talked of "when we come back to Iceland".
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Particularly liked the lovely new hotel in Trondheim and the interesting historic hotel in Bergen. Bjarni was available to answer our questions promptly while on the tour and arranged for our luggage transfer after the tour had started. I travelled with family to Denmark, Norway and Sweden this month and had a fantastic time, thanks in large part to the excellent job that Nordic Visitor did in coordinating my trip.
I customized one of their Scandinavian package deals by extending my time in certain cities and Nordic Visitor accommodated my requests. The hotels that they booked were very nice and all were close to tourist attractions and public transportation. The agency also booked some of the transportation, including a flight from Bergen to Stockholm, as well as all transportation for the Norway in a Nutshell tour, which was an awesome experience and the perfect way to take in the breathtaking scenery of the Norwegian mountains and fjords.
I would definitely use Nordic Visitor again, if I ever decide to return to Scandinavia. My wife and I took the Iceland Full Circle self-drive tour in early June.
We then stayed on in Reykjavik for a few days. Our tour was arranged by Jelena. She was very helpful.Having a car and a place to stay looked after made it very easy and flexible for us. We loved all the places booked for us. It was fantastic they offered breakfast for us. We would definitely use your services again some day and recommend to anyone considering a relaxing self drive vacation in Iceland.
The roads in Iceland were far better than I had envisioned. Cheers, Singer, The entire experience was fabulous. Having everything organized and written out by day was great. Each day was fantastic. Providing the GPS coordinates was brilliant. Our trip was made so easy because everything was beautifully organized for us. It was a fabulous experience. Each of the destinations was magnificent and we also did many of the suggested additional recommendations.
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Manual for Low Volume Roads (2016 version)
Thank you very much Sofia. We were able to see the midnight sun because of nordic visitor they have planned our tour very well and the local guides were very co operative. We used Larus at Nordic Visitors to arrange a weeklong tour of Reykjavik and the Southern Coast of Iceland.
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